Christian Cave Churches and Monasteries in Cappadocia Turkey


Iconic Early 5th Century Christian Cross

As a traveler one of the thing that really stands out in digging in to understand a people is how much of culture is influenced by faith and religion.  In Europe you must visit the cathedrals because it was the center of the universe for the people.  In Istanbul you must visit the Blue Mosque and Hagia Sofia or you haven’t seen Istanbul. I have found Israel, Jerusalem, Bethehem, and Jordan to be quite amazing.  Even Cairo had places that reminded me of Moses and the red sea.  I have found the cathedrals across Europe to be quite amazing, even Ireland had some amazing history as it relates to early Christianity.  Rome and the catacombs.  Early Christians in Ireland, or Monserrat in Spain… incredible.  These early Christians driven into caves and into the mountains the hermits of Bulgaria and Macedonia are fascinating and must see.  The monasteries in the cliffs of Meteora where they survived from decimation for more than 500 years.  I love thinking about Thessaloniki or the Thessalonians.  My visit to Armenia and connecting with locals and making friends the thoughts and attitudes of the people cannot be separated from their faith as a people.  Mount Arrarat and Noah’s Ark and God’s dealing with the Armenian people is so deeply ingrained in their art, their life and spirit.

A One trying to understand the mind of the pre-Nicean church can do much study the rich art and paintings captured on the walls of the hundreds if not thousands of painted caves now abandoned art work of Cappadocia.  The cave paintings while much has been destroyed have preserved a lot of history and messages through the images.  I find it quite inspiring and very peaceful.  In some of the churches that you pay to see one with no cameras allowed.  I could easily spend an hour staring at the ceiling and unweaving the thoughts in the heads of these early christians.  Their faith, their perspectivies, their stories.  Much of the tradition has been preserved, but a lot has been lost as well.  Lots of contemplation are required to understand not just the story, but the perceptions of the artist.

Cave homeMary the mother of Jesus

This photo is not a direct photo, but actually a photo of what I saw, but photographed from a book at the gift shop, or a post card.  You can see how much color is still in the images.   The color alone is quite the story as the paint was made from pigeon poo.

My travels took me to Goreme, in central Turkey.  These natural occuring ferry chimneys are amazing.  I’ve only been in a few places in the world where they have these, Utah’s Goblin Valley, and Bryce Canyon, but what those places don’t have are the primitive Christian churches and the underground cities.  The Tuff left from the volcanic ash turned rock helped provide a substance that was very easy to carve, but also very strong, like a more dense pumice.

Goreme Open Air Museum Entrance

There are multiple locations in Cappadocia where you can find these cave churches.  First the largest collection in a small area is the Goreme Open Air Museum.  There are lots of great cave hotels in Goreme.  I recommend staying in a cave at least one night.  It’s a unique experience and it’s quite affordable.

Unfortunately nearly all of the churches would not allow photography or video cameras at the Open air musuem.  You could take pictures outside, but definitely not as  compelling.

high cave churchThe Snake Church

There were a few select churches that they allowed photography in.  The names of the churches come from the art work inside.  Apple church, snake church, etc…

Christian Column Inside the cave church

While these may look impressive, the reality is these were pretty bare.

On a walk through the various churches you’d mostly get directed at the various figures and stories from the bible, but it was stories like the animal below that represents paganism that really caught my interest.  I was interested in the explanations of what was different and how they lived and what they believed.  Like can you believe that most of the well preserved cave paintings have the eyes of the people carved out.

Pagans

I was told the local muslim people felt threatened and the eyes alone could convert.  So you have these scary pictures where the eyes are carved out.

Greek Influece on Caves in Turkey The Hive of Caves

Not only were the churches carved into the stone, the people as well lived in caves in stone where archways could be fancied up.  On the left you have the homes of displaced Greeks in Turkey.  Most of them moved back to Greece.

Next we travel to the Ihlara Valley were over a dozen caves were turned into churches.  One of the most amazing hikes… Combines peaceful walk along a stream with basalt canyon walls like the snake river valley in Idaho or, and pillars of the Giants Causeway in Ireland.

Ihlara Valley Map

As you can see by the little yellow dots along the slides of the river in the Ihlara valley, for miles along the river, caves were turned into places of worship.  If you were simply walking along the river, you would have really No idea this was happening.  It’s Fantastic!!

Ihlara valley cave churchesPainted Cave

Do these caves above look like they might contain this… image to the right.

Beautiful art still remains on the walls.  Much has been destroyed or defaced.  Eyes of the saints in the pictures are scratched out.  One guide told us that the people were worried about how the beautiful icononic art might convert them.  The watching eyes were just too powerful.  So much so that for much of what you see there are few eyes you’ll find.

The Three Magi

Below the three magi or wisemen and their gifts for the birth of the savior minus their eyes.  If you look near the hat you can see names in Greek.  It looks like the names of the magi were added afterward. The shape of their hats is interesting.  It brings a historical understanding.  Studying this brings much more understanding of the early 6th century church.

Mary on a donkey

Mary on the Donkey… Did you know the reference to Mary riding a donkey is actually not found in the bible, but in apocryphal writings in the text the Infancy Gospel of James?  This may be one of the earliest paintings that exists showing Mary on a Donkey.

The dome in pigeon poo

It is very incredible to think of the condition that these paintings were made.  These were painted many many years prior to the crusades, and the spread of the ottoman empire.  These were made at time when the Christians were hiding in caves.  The paint was made from pigeon droppings.  To think about that part of it it’s really very remarkable much remains at all.

Open Air churchesGoreme

When in Goreme and surrounding you’ll find that you need at least 2 to 3 days to simply race through everything.  4 days to a week will allow you to take a slower pace to really enjoy the valleys and take more in.  The tours are very inexpensive, and they are organized into the blue tour, the red tour and so on, and they really are packed with places to see and visit.  One morning you need to do the balloon ride for the adventuresome.  If you are thinking about the balloon, don’t wait till the last day because they are frequently cancelled due to weather conditions.

Goreme from above

View of Goreme from the top of the hills.

Abandoned fairy homes

The Fairy chimneys… turned home and now abandoned. A honeycomb of mystery and intrigue.

The Messiah scratched out

The Messiah, with a scratched out face…

Selime Cathedral

For more adventure… On one end of the Ihlara valley is the Selime Cathedral.  Walking to simply get to this Cathedral makes you feel like you’re rock climbing.  It isn’t for little old ladies or old men.  This requires a little bit of skill to navigate across the rocks, through tunnels and a bit of scrambling…

Selime Cathedral

But the payoff is big.  Huge rooms with archways and columns still remain while much of the artwork is destroyed and soot covers the ceilings.

Selime Cathedral

If you look closely you can still see remains, of what was once majestic.

Cappadocia Central Turkey Valleys and the all seeing eye

If there was any doubt that this valley wasn’t backed with mystery, intrigue and wonder… I hope a few of these picture have opened your mind.  Goreme and Cappadocia still remains one of my favorite destinations and the my appreciation for the early church and their cave dwelling days has shaped what we think of even as a catheral or church.  We have much to share in appreciation for these devoted follower of central Turkey.

Traveling Ireland’s Ancient and Natural Wonders

Cross in Ireland

Ireland has been inhabited for thousands and thousands of years.  For Eons and Ages, Ireland has constantly been inhabited and has a rich culture of folklore, myths, and a myriad of megalithic structures scattered across the country marking structures from these older ages.  Early man left evidence from the mesolithic, neolithic, stone, bronze, and iron ages. I love traveling to Medieval and Neolithic sites.  The ancient world history is fascinating to me.  From the pyramids and temples of Egypt to Avebury & Stone Henge and on to the Nazca lines and the underground cities of Goreme and Cappadocia.  I’m absolutely fascinated with it.  So much of what we know is so little.  We talk about these places like we know all about them, but honestly it’s pre-historic and we know very little and are still learning.

History in Ireland started in 400 AD with the spread of Christianity.  It’s amazing to think of it spreading so far and wide.  There are some amazing structures to see in Ireland.  Within a short drive from the beautiful city of Dublin, you can be at amazing places.  I recommend Wicklow for an afternoon at Glendalough.  Glendalough is a glacial valley in County Wicklow, Ireland. It is known for its early Medieval monastic settlement founded in the 6th century by St Kevin, a hermit priest.  It’s a beautiful drive and history itself unfolds as you walk amongst the graves, churches, and stone archways.

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Like these ancient sites.  Very easy to connect with nature and get a feel for what it was like in a village.  This tower entry reminds me of Rapunzel.  The entry to get in the tower is twenty feet off the ground.  Apparently the monks would climb up a latter and then pull it up.  They could drop rocks or oil and fire on the invaders.

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These ancient rock churches are beautiful, but not an uncommon site in Ireland.  They have lasted well through the ages.  You can see how important faith was through the ages.

Glendalough is home to one of the most important monastic sites in Ireland. This early Christian monastic settlement was founded by St. Kevin in the 6th century and from this developed the “Monastic City”. Most of the buildings on the site today date from the 10th through 12th centuries. Despite attacks by Vikings over the years, Glendalough thrived as one of Ireland’s great ecclesiastical foundations and schools of learning until the Normans destroyed the monastery in 1214 A.D.

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Amazing structures, history from an ancient time… you can feel it in your bones.

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Walking through the graves and the amazing Celtic crosses makes you feel an appreciation for the deep faith of the people.

Older than the Pyramids or Stone henge, Newgrange was an amazing find.  I was amazed to find such an ancient megalithic structure that I hadn’t heard of with such importance.  Driving north from Dublin straight north in the small town County Meath, Ireland on our way to Belfast and Northern Ireland, we saw a sign for this ancient site.  I was intrigued.  What is this Neolithic site I’ve never heard of?  Newgrange is a large mound in a circular shape with a stone passageway and decent sized chamber inside (no pictures inside).  On the tour they told us that during the 70’s some hippies were inside when it lit up during the winter solstice.  Apparently they really didn’t know what it was used for prior.  There’s still some confusion, but essentially this mount is not isolated.  There are a lot of them in a small area.

New Grange

This stone mound is surrounded by large stones with Neolithic carvings that still show up reasonably well.  I absolutely love the swirls.  It reminds me of the tail of the monkey in the Nazca lines.  What you don’t realize is just how old they estimate this place.

These megalithic structures are called portal tombs (a chamber consisting of upright stones with one or more large flat capstones forming a roof) or passage graves or dolmen often there is often no human remains. There are 40 of these passage graves near Newgrange.  The carvings on the rock are one of the largest collection of megalithic art.

megalithic artNewgrance megolithic

Incredible examples of one of the largest natural collection of Megalithic art… Newgrange is part of the Brú na Bóinne UNESCO World Heritage Site.

solstice lottery

On the tour, they simulate the light, but there is actually a lottery to be able to be one of the lucky handful who can be in the chamber when the light enters.

In Northern Ireland is one of the great natural wonders of Ireland.  The Giants Causeway.  This basalt has dried in amazing formations on the sea side.  It’s like Black Chrystal formations.

Giants Causeway beach, Northern Ireland

Giants Causeway, Northern Ireland

In the Giants Causeway with my sons.  I’m lucky to be able to travel with my family on occasion.  Ireland is a good family destination.  Very family friendly destinations, and accommodations. They really enjoyed Ireland as well, and to think I was afraid there wasn’t that much to see.  Incredible structures, incredible history, and very fun people.  I’d be happy to go back to Ireland… anytime.  So much more to see.

Meet the Fijian Hindustanis – The Other Side of Fiji


Fiji is a multi racial and multi ethnic place. In my previous post on Fiji I wrote about the native Fijians and my experience connecting with the locals.  The majority of Fijians are native Melanesians.  43% of the population are Indo-Fijians or Hindustanis. Indian indentured laborers were initially brought to Fiji, Indo-Fijian. In the late 1800’s Indians came as indentured laborers to work on the sugar plantations. Most have been here in Fiji for multiple generations.  They even have a fusion language.  After the indentured system ended, many stayed on as farmers and became businessmen.

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Now you have the most amazing fusion.  Hindu temples on an island jungle with culture, language, and society that is culture and tradition rich cultural island nation mixed with the incredible history of India. A little bit of curry goes a long way to spice up a dish.  The colors really light up the place.

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My friend Michael of sharingtheglobe.com is *really* good at travel.  When we put our minds together, we put together incredible adventures.  Michael knew that the hindu holiday of Holi was happening.  So while the first day of our trip, we knew we wanted to venture deep into the island and spend our time in a village.

The adventure began when we woke up on Holi morning.  We knew we wanted to find out where the holi celebration was happening.  We asked around and some mentioned that the Hari Krishna temple was where it was happening.  We tracked it down, and visited it, but while a beautiful building, they weren’t having it there.  They told us to go to a different hindi temple. It was there we saw a small gathering.  It was the super soaker of purple dyes that really made a mess.  We knew as we approached that we were going to get really painted up. 

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Within a couple of minutes, we were soaking with colors of the rainbow.  It was fun, exciting, and we joined in music and food.  The kids were loving it just as much as the adults.

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It was after we left the temple that we we driving a long all painted up when we saw a big truck full of Holi day people.  The truck was like a large military truck with room for tons of people. We waved and they waved back.  They were excited to see follow holi friends and gestured for us to follow them.  We followed them as they drove to a house.  An older lady answered the door, and the music and dancing began and paint started flying.  In western terms it felt like a mix between trick or treating for Halloween, and Christmas caroling, but the colors feel like a mix of easter and a spring water fight.  Amazing.  I hope you can just imagine the joy we were spreading as we were going from house to house, singing and dancing, and letting go of norms.  It was very energizing to let go and connect with these people.  In the end we stopped for a round of Kava.   

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The purple dyes would take over a week to get out, but the feelings lasted even longer.  I gained a huge appreciation for the hindi people in this experience.  The love, the friendship, it was amazing to see the outreach and ability to connect a community.  These traditions should be respected.  When I found out that not 50 miles from where I’m currently living, the hindu temple has an annual gathering and the community gathers to celebrate with the Hindu people.  If you ever get the chance to celebrate holi.  You must.  It will help you gain a huge appreciation for India, Hindus, and the global culture that has brought spice to the world. Happy Holi, and I pray for continued peace on the island of Fiji.  What an amazing place!!!

Walking tour of Quebec French Canada: 5 Things You Can NOT Miss!

Chateau Frontenac

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Canada’s Castle – Chateau Frontenac

5 Things Not to Miss in Quebec City!

1. Chateau Frontenac – top of the hill. In all the pictures… this is the big amazing castle.

castle panorama

2. City Hall and Parliament building and and the nearby Wall with various entrances to the old city

parliament

3. Gates/Wall/Stronghold The Plains of Abraham – site of battle during the 7 years war or French & Indian War (great museum Musée de la civilisation nearby with interactive exhibits)

towers

4. Notre-Dame-des-Victoires Church –bottom of the hill in Old town great walking area.

church panorama

5. Ice Castle at the Winter Carnival/Ice hotel first ice hotel in the Americas. The hotel has a four-month lifespan each year before being brought down in April – The city is must see during the winter.  It’s a winter wonderland from what I could see.  If you like ice sports, check out Crashed Ice a downhill ice cross world championship with high vertical drops high speed and sharp turns.  During the summer it’s the music festival… so there really is something here all year round.  4 great seasons… never too hot.  Looking for a something different?  Go on the haunted tour and hear a different set of stories completely.  I ran out of time, but know that old town would be fascinating to see in dark with stories.

nt side of the history.  For kids I also recommend tracking down the old cannon ball in the tree.  It’s weird history! cannonballtree

One story says that the cannonball landed here during the Battle of Québec in 1759 and overtaken by the tree.  Another story says that it was placed here on purpose to keep the wheels of horse-drawn carriages from bumping the tree when making tight turns. Frommers Includes it on their walking tour of Quebec City.

Here are some additional impressions of the city and some of what I learned about this beautiful amazing historical city…

1608 Quebec City is one of the oldest cities in North America. The old stone walls surrounding Old Quebec (Vieux-Québec) are the only remaining fortified city walls that still exist in the Americas north of Mexico, and declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985 as the ‘Historic District of Old Québec.  I spent a few days there and learned so much.  One of my favorite cities in North America… Amazing walking city, the old town is really one of the most beautiful.  Interestingly, all I can think of that’s comparable is another former French city which I love to visit, and walk around… New Orleans.  It has the charm of the old world, but has an incredible history that goes back to the founding of the Americas when the Europeans invaded or discovered or both.

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899240_10151647952363783_628300677_oI spent a few days in Quebec, but it was a huge history lesson of North America that made me realize I really didn’t learn anything about Canada in school and there is a lot more to early pre-America/pre-Canada history when France, England and Spain where figuring things out with the various native tribes.  Interesting you’d think there would be a comparison between James Town 1607 (First permanent English settlement? According to Canada it’s St Johns in Canada 1583 the oldest English-founded city in North America) and Quebec City but according to wikipiedia it’s Santo Domingo that is the oldest continuously inhabited European established settlement in the Americas in 1498.

Jamestown 1607 the first permanent English settlement in the Americas (in 1618).

St. John’s 1583 is the oldest English-founded city in North America

Quebec City 1608 is one of the oldest European founded cities in North America

I found this article on Wikipedia to be fascinating in showing the real oldest cities in North America incorporating all of what the Spanish were doing, but also incorporating the age of what was already in place listing Kaminaljuyu Guatemala as the oldest at 1500BC, but doesn’t appear to be continuous… still a great list.

Here are a few stereotypes I had heard up to this point.  Canadians were the ones that didn’t want to flight the revolutionary war and ultimately were a liability.  I really didn’t know much about French Canada at all other than that they were French and somehow in the middle of Canada which didn’t make sense.    There really is so much of US history that you need to learn from outside of the US.  I’m serious.  I learned a ton.  Castles in Canada?  Yep, Quebec City is the last remaining walled city in North America, north of Mexico.

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This map shows which tribes were aligned with the blue as French  and the red as English

I had to look up more.  I wasn’t ok with 1607 vs. 1608… who was first?  I think we need a history debate. St. Johns vs. Jamestown…896571_10151647761853783_467293664_o “Referred to as "North America’s Oldest City", St. John’s is the oldest settlement in North America to hold city status, with year-round settlement beginning sometime before 1620 and seasonal settlement long before that. It is not, however, the oldest surviving English settlement in North America or Canada, as is often believed, as it was preceded by the Cuper’s Cove colony at Cupids, founded in 1610, and the Bristol’s Hope colony at Harbour Grace, founded in 1618. In fact, although English fisherman had begun setting up seasonal camps in Newfoundland in the 16th Century, they were expressly forbidden from establishing permanent settlements, hence the town of St. John’s not being established ’til circa 1620. As Jamestown,Virginia also, did not exist ’til 1619 (prior to that, its settlers were obliged to live within James Fort), St. George’s, Bermuda (strictly-speaking, not in the Americas at all, but an Atlantic oceanic island), established in 1612, is claimed to be the oldest continuously-inhabited English town in the New World, and is also suggested to have been the first.”  — Crazy.  What you learn in History class appears to not be consistent.  Must depend on Canadian or US History class…  Cause you could argue that French explorer Jacques Cartier built a fort at the site in 1535, where he stayed for the winter before going back to France in spring 1536, but please don’t rely on me for the history of Quebec City and Canada.  I’m still soaking it in.  Lots to learn.

What happened in the US prior to the revolutionary war is best learned in…. Canada.  Sounds crazy, but did you know where George Washington learned how to be a good General?  He led troops against the French in Canada fighting for the British

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Beautiful Old Town: Amazing little shops in really old buildings.

I also learned that the French built strong relationships with the individual tribes to create alliances.  They paid off the Indians (First Nations/Native Americans), and that’s why they fought for the French in the French and Indian war against George Washington.  Now it kinda makes sense why the early Americans weren’t so happy with the native tribes.  For me it filled in a few blanks.  I still won’t begin to understand why the trail of tears, all of the mistreatment and poor handling since.  Visited an indigenous group in Panama recently and wished there was still groups living like they did in the old west and prior.

Man amazing how political this post already is, but that’s what went though my head. 

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Pictured: Quebec National Assembly

895824_10151647930013783_68076590_oQuebec independence has played a large role in the politics of the province. Referendums for sovereignty in 1980 and 1995 both voted down by voters with the latest in a narrow margin. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada even passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada."

Pictured Left: View of Old Town Quebec City next to the St Lawrence River

Most people live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City

Russia Travel Rocks – St Petersburg to Majestic Moscow

Red Square Moscow

Russia is just the most amazing place.  Part of this for me is just the pure history of the last century, but also it’s just so prominent on the globe.  Russia has been so imperial.  So majestic.  So mysterious. There’s the crazy cold war, and my favorite the space race.  Forget about the arms race, although I really do need to visit Chernobyl.  I did fly over it on a jet on my way out of Moldova. Can you believe it? The US is now hitching rides with the Russians into space to the international space station.  Amazing how the dynamics themselves have definitely changed.  At least the space people are collaborating.

Red Square - State Historical Museum

When I was growing up I remember looking for places to hide just in case the Russians came.  There was the attic, and the potato cellar.  Either way Russians were always the enemy, but in church we would talk about when Russia would be open for the preaching of the gospel.  The end of the world would come shortly after missionaries entered Russia, or so it would seem. Ronald Regan had that big arms race thing.  The “Wall” comes down and shortly Russia would be open for preaching of the gospel.  I’d hear of friends who would go there on their missions.  There was stories that reached all the way to Idaho about the first McDonalds in Russia and how lines wrapped around the block or worse.  Fast forward a few years, and I’m a minority on a Russia majority software company up in Seattle.  I find these “refugees” are amazing, and I’m fascinated with their culture.  I never hated Russians, just fascinated by their culture and the communist machine.  So many stories about how we should be extremely worried about anything that had anything to do with it.  Living in Seattle, I’d find a HUGE Leningrad Lenin at a coffee shop.  There was even communist magazines and articles in Fremont area in Washington, that made it seem almost cool to be communist, because it was racy.  Why do I give you this terse background story?  Because going to Russia is a HUGE rush.  Most American’s have some weird ideas of what it would be like to go to Russia.  How dangerous it might be, what might happen.  The crazy Russian Mafia stories.

First thing I had to do as an American was getting the Russian Visa.  It was the longest visa form I’ve ever filled out.  I started having doubts that they might not admit me.  It’s not just asking about my passport details and where I’m going… It gets into my parents and grandparents on both sides.  It asks about every country I’ve visited plus dates, that’s a pretty good list that ends up being pretty complex.  Despite the complexity and the couple of weeks it took.  I get the visa!!  I’m on my way to Russia.  What’s better I’ve got colleagues in St. Petersburg and I’ve got a SharePoint user group meeting setup in Moscow.  So work is paying for hotels, and all I’ve got to do is cover a train ticket from St. Petersburg to Moscow.  The Nevsky express!  Strangely about a week after that train ride that same train would get blown up and derailed by Chechen Rebels. Crazy.

St Petersburg Church of Spilled Blood

Pictured Above:  One of my favorite buildings in St Petersburg is the Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood. This Church was built on the site where Tsar Alexander II was assassinated and was dedicated in his memory.

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