Christian Cave Churches and Monasteries in Cappadocia Turkey


Iconic Early 5th Century Christian Cross

As a traveler one of the thing that really stands out in digging in to understand a people is how much of culture is influenced by faith and religion.  In Europe you must visit the cathedrals because it was the center of the universe for the people.  In Istanbul you must visit the Blue Mosque and Hagia Sofia or you haven’t seen Istanbul. I have found Israel, Jerusalem, Bethehem, and Jordan to be quite amazing.  Even Cairo had places that reminded me of Moses and the red sea.  I have found the cathedrals across Europe to be quite amazing, even Ireland had some amazing history as it relates to early Christianity.  Rome and the catacombs.  Early Christians in Ireland, or Monserrat in Spain… incredible.  These early Christians driven into caves and into the mountains the hermits of Bulgaria and Macedonia are fascinating and must see.  The monasteries in the cliffs of Meteora where they survived from decimation for more than 500 years.  I love thinking about Thessaloniki or the Thessalonians.  My visit to Armenia and connecting with locals and making friends the thoughts and attitudes of the people cannot be separated from their faith as a people.  Mount Arrarat and Noah’s Ark and God’s dealing with the Armenian people is so deeply ingrained in their art, their life and spirit.

A One trying to understand the mind of the pre-Nicean church can do much study the rich art and paintings captured on the walls of the hundreds if not thousands of painted caves now abandoned art work of Cappadocia.  The cave paintings while much has been destroyed have preserved a lot of history and messages through the images.  I find it quite inspiring and very peaceful.  In some of the churches that you pay to see one with no cameras allowed.  I could easily spend an hour staring at the ceiling and unweaving the thoughts in the heads of these early christians.  Their faith, their perspectivies, their stories.  Much of the tradition has been preserved, but a lot has been lost as well.  Lots of contemplation are required to understand not just the story, but the perceptions of the artist.

Cave homeMary the mother of Jesus

This photo is not a direct photo, but actually a photo of what I saw, but photographed from a book at the gift shop, or a post card.  You can see how much color is still in the images.   The color alone is quite the story as the paint was made from pigeon poo.

My travels took me to Goreme, in central Turkey.  These natural occuring ferry chimneys are amazing.  I’ve only been in a few places in the world where they have these, Utah’s Goblin Valley, and Bryce Canyon, but what those places don’t have are the primitive Christian churches and the underground cities.  The Tuff left from the volcanic ash turned rock helped provide a substance that was very easy to carve, but also very strong, like a more dense pumice.

Goreme Open Air Museum Entrance

There are multiple locations in Cappadocia where you can find these cave churches.  First the largest collection in a small area is the Goreme Open Air Museum.  There are lots of great cave hotels in Goreme.  I recommend staying in a cave at least one night.  It’s a unique experience and it’s quite affordable.

Unfortunately nearly all of the churches would not allow photography or video cameras at the Open air musuem.  You could take pictures outside, but definitely not as  compelling.

high cave churchThe Snake Church

There were a few select churches that they allowed photography in.  The names of the churches come from the art work inside.  Apple church, snake church, etc…

Christian Column Inside the cave church

While these may look impressive, the reality is these were pretty bare.

On a walk through the various churches you’d mostly get directed at the various figures and stories from the bible, but it was stories like the animal below that represents paganism that really caught my interest.  I was interested in the explanations of what was different and how they lived and what they believed.  Like can you believe that most of the well preserved cave paintings have the eyes of the people carved out.

Pagans

I was told the local muslim people felt threatened and the eyes alone could convert.  So you have these scary pictures where the eyes are carved out.

Greek Influece on Caves in Turkey The Hive of Caves

Not only were the churches carved into the stone, the people as well lived in caves in stone where archways could be fancied up.  On the left you have the homes of displaced Greeks in Turkey.  Most of them moved back to Greece.

Next we travel to the Ihlara Valley were over a dozen caves were turned into churches.  One of the most amazing hikes… Combines peaceful walk along a stream with basalt canyon walls like the snake river valley in Idaho or, and pillars of the Giants Causeway in Ireland.

Ihlara Valley Map

As you can see by the little yellow dots along the slides of the river in the Ihlara valley, for miles along the river, caves were turned into places of worship.  If you were simply walking along the river, you would have really No idea this was happening.  It’s Fantastic!!

Ihlara valley cave churchesPainted Cave

Do these caves above look like they might contain this… image to the right.

Beautiful art still remains on the walls.  Much has been destroyed or defaced.  Eyes of the saints in the pictures are scratched out.  One guide told us that the people were worried about how the beautiful icononic art might convert them.  The watching eyes were just too powerful.  So much so that for much of what you see there are few eyes you’ll find.

The Three Magi

Below the three magi or wisemen and their gifts for the birth of the savior minus their eyes.  If you look near the hat you can see names in Greek.  It looks like the names of the magi were added afterward. The shape of their hats is interesting.  It brings a historical understanding.  Studying this brings much more understanding of the early 6th century church.

Mary on a donkey

Mary on the Donkey… Did you know the reference to Mary riding a donkey is actually not found in the bible, but in apocryphal writings in the text the Infancy Gospel of James?  This may be one of the earliest paintings that exists showing Mary on a Donkey.

The dome in pigeon poo

It is very incredible to think of the condition that these paintings were made.  These were painted many many years prior to the crusades, and the spread of the ottoman empire.  These were made at time when the Christians were hiding in caves.  The paint was made from pigeon droppings.  To think about that part of it it’s really very remarkable much remains at all.

Open Air churchesGoreme

When in Goreme and surrounding you’ll find that you need at least 2 to 3 days to simply race through everything.  4 days to a week will allow you to take a slower pace to really enjoy the valleys and take more in.  The tours are very inexpensive, and they are organized into the blue tour, the red tour and so on, and they really are packed with places to see and visit.  One morning you need to do the balloon ride for the adventuresome.  If you are thinking about the balloon, don’t wait till the last day because they are frequently cancelled due to weather conditions.

Goreme from above

View of Goreme from the top of the hills.

Abandoned fairy homes

The Fairy chimneys… turned home and now abandoned. A honeycomb of mystery and intrigue.

The Messiah scratched out

The Messiah, with a scratched out face…

Selime Cathedral

For more adventure… On one end of the Ihlara valley is the Selime Cathedral.  Walking to simply get to this Cathedral makes you feel like you’re rock climbing.  It isn’t for little old ladies or old men.  This requires a little bit of skill to navigate across the rocks, through tunnels and a bit of scrambling…

Selime Cathedral

But the payoff is big.  Huge rooms with archways and columns still remain while much of the artwork is destroyed and soot covers the ceilings.

Selime Cathedral

If you look closely you can still see remains, of what was once majestic.

Cappadocia Central Turkey Valleys and the all seeing eye

If there was any doubt that this valley wasn’t backed with mystery, intrigue and wonder… I hope a few of these picture have opened your mind.  Goreme and Cappadocia still remains one of my favorite destinations and the my appreciation for the early church and their cave dwelling days has shaped what we think of even as a catheral or church.  We have much to share in appreciation for these devoted follower of central Turkey.

10 Must See Attractions In and Around Copenhagen Denmark the City of Cyclists


Copenhagen CyclistsCopenhagen bikes

One of the best ways to see Copenhagen, Denmark is the way the locals do.  On the seat of a bike.

Bicycles play a major role in the life of any local in Copenhagen. The bicycle is transportation for work, school, even night on the town with a date or night at the opera.  A special bike famous from Copenhagen is designed for transporting construction materials or appliances, bringing children to kindergarten, going for a ride. No matter what the purpose will be, the bike is the answer.Why do they pick a bike over a car or public transport?  It’s the fastest way of getting around in the city!

Nyhavn houses and bikes Nyhavn bridge

1. Nyhavn

One of my favorite parts of town is Nyhavn.  These beautiful buildings have so much color and character.  First you must stroll along this street either on the seat of a bike or strolling along on a walk.  There are canal tours for those who want to see it from the water side as well.  Great food along there as well.  I often ended my day along Nyhavn.

Nyhavn Panorama of the Canal

If you’re in Copenhagen for a conference, or cruise, or a holiday.  You will find plenty to do to fill your 24 hours in beautiful Copenhagen.

Amalienborg Palace Changing of the Guard

2. Amalienborg Palace

Amalienborg Palace is the Danish monarch’s winter residence on the waterfront in Copenhagen.  It’s in Copenhagen, so not hard to get to. Time your visit to watch the changing of the guard.

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3. Frederiksborg Castle

is a palace in Hillerød, Denmark part of the . It was built as a royal residence for King Christian IV.  Heading out to this place could be part of a day trip.

It is on the Castles tour from Copenhagen: North Zealand and Hamlet Castle tour There are multiple tours, so you’ll need to decide what you want to see most.

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4. Carl Bloch paintings

If you like religious art. I highly recommend tracking down the Carl Bloch (very famous Danish Painter) paintings in the Carl Bloch’s paintings in the Frederiksborg Palace collection.  They are very moving and are considered some of the best in the world.

royal courtyardamazing rooms Inside the palace

After I got home and started looking through all of the pictures from my castle tour I noticed I couldn’t tell which photos where from which palace.

Elsinore Castle - Kronborg Castle

5. Kronborg Castle

complete with moat, in Helsingor known as Elsinore Castle from  Shakespeare’s Hamlet.  This castle is a couple hours outside of Copenhagen.  Ask about it in relation to a castle tour.  Lonely Planet details: Hamlet Castle Tour

If you do have multiple days and looking at day trips out of Copenhagen, consider Malmo Sweden.  It’s an easy train ride over a very long and fun bridge.  There are a few things to see, and easy to make an afternoon out of it.

baby angels pipe organ Columns

The halls are so ornate I ended up taking hundreds of photos of columns, and gold and amazing sculptures and art work.  My first trip to Copenhagen was one of my first trips to Europe, and hence blew my mind in terms of seeing so much history and royal wealth.  It was mind numbing to see multiple days worth of palaces, castles, and cathedrals with so much history.  My eyes are now much more trained to recognize the history.  Now when I look at a marble column that doesn’t match I can imagine that it was likely borrowed from an earlier time period likely from a pagan temple.

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There are quite a few palaces, parliament buildings, castles, and historic buildings within and near Copenhagen.  Consider a Castle tour or two. Your head will be spinning with ancient places that you’ll be wondering what it was or what it is.

Tivoli at nightTivoli Gardens in Copenhagen

6. Tivoli Gardens

(Left – above at night, right from SAS Raddison Blue hotel window)

Tivoli is ancient and modern at the same time.  The structure and property has been an old amusement park from 1843.  It is world famous and shows up in many movies and may be the most famous places to visit in Copenhagen. Inside the garden you’ll find amusement park rides, activities and exhibits.  In the winter it becomes a winter wonderland decorated with lights and mechanical elves and Christmas decor.  I use Tivoli and the Train Station as a landmark when I’m walking around the city.  As well I will often try to book hotels close to Tivoli as it’s very central to downtown Copenhagen and walking distance of all of the good stuff including the Stroget walking street.

Strøget – The Strøget is 1.1 kilometers long and claims to be the world’s longest urban pedestrian zone.  It’s a very enjoyable walk with interesting high street shops.  You may find this is the best route from place to place on your bike or strolling along.

We did end up going up the round tower Rundetaarn at night.  It was interesting. It has specific time periods where it’s open.  Apparently it’s the oldest observatory in Europe.  It is worth tracking down.

Frederiks KirkeMarble Church domeFrederiks Kirk

8. Frederiks Kirke (The Marble Church)

this stately building is well worth a visit (above)

Speaking of churches. There are some other great churches in Copenhagen.

Church of our Lady Copenhagen

9.  Church of Our Lady

This church has a very special feel with amazing sculptures. This church is all focused on a greater than life sized Christ and his apostles grace the church.  As well a massive pipe organ plus a second story filled with columns in a very bright white church.   It has a very strong spirit about it.  This church is in Copenhagen and easy to walk to and open till 5pm most days.

Christus CopenhagenBertel Thorvaldsen's Sculptures

All of the sculptures were designed by Bertel Thorvaldsen.  If you like his work. There is a museum dedicated to his works next to the Christiansborg Palace.

Speaking of sculptures.  There’s one statue that most guidebooks will tell you that you can’t miss.  It’s the Hans Christian Anderson Little Mermaid Statue in Copenhagen.  It’s become quite the icon for the city.  She’s also loved to be hated.  She has gone through some rough times herself as she often gets chopped up and stolen.

Little Mermaid at Night - Copenhagen  Little Mermaid Copenhagen Denmark

10. The Little Mermaid

This isn’t the only statue in Copenhagen, but she is the most famous.  Since she’s by the water there are multiple ways to view her.  She is out near the old fort.  It’s quite a walk from downtown, but not impossible.

If you like art and statues.  Be sure to take it in.  There is a lot of variety around the city that is worth checking out.

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EAT!!

The Main CourseVenison fancy salad2 forks

Traditional meatballs and potatoesThey love to eat in Copenhagen.  The Danish are known for their food.  They have very elaborate long sittings with a variety of wines, beers, and non alcoholic drinks as well, I tried a rhubarb drink.  Often when you sit down to dinner at a nice place in Copenhagen, you’re sitting down for a 4+ or up to 6 course meal.  I think I had 5 forks in one meal.  They keep bringing out plates and plates of different little dishes of food for you to eat.  There’s a lot in the presentation.  The portions are small in the fine dinning arena.

Then there’s the traditional meat and potatoes.  Often meat balls and some small vegetables.  You can also get open faced sandwiches.  Copenhagen does have a variety of food, but in most cases you are committing yourself to relaxing and enjoying yourself.  If you’re use to American style, where you are there for the food and not the ambiance, you may have to let your waiter know when you need them.

Christiania Beer  Art of Christiania

10. Christiania

Alternative living… was founded in 1971 when a group of citizens knocked down the fence to an abandoned military area and set up a new hippie community, completely independent of the Danish government.  In 2012 the Christiania fund bought the land.  It’s now a bunch of artists, but they’ve gotten creative.  They now have their own beer.

This place is unique in the world.  It’s a bit of burning man every night.  It’s a place that means different things to different people and the expression that comes from it has a wide variety as well.

– Real freedom of different types to different people: Check your politics and biases at the door.

– Anarchy – No RULES! Well, this has definitely changed over time.

– Shared living, shared everything.  Those hey day are over.  Now you’ll find there are businesses and art studios, where years ago anyone would be obliged to share.

– A place to do drugs in peace without the law.  There are still soft drugs a plenty.  Be careful with your camera.

– While capitalism was what they were trying to get away from, there’s quite the little cottage industry from the artists during the day, and at night it’s the bars and cafes

There has been spouts of violence in the past, but this is really a unique place.  I have really enjoyed my time there, but it’s not or everyone.

Vor Frelsers Kirke - The Church of our Saviour

Vor Frelsers Kirke (The Church of our Saviour)

is located at Christianshavn and was built in the years 1682 to 1696.

I hope you enjoyed this story among some of the others that I have posted.  I put this post together for my sister, Tamra who is doing a cruise from Copenhagen.  I hope she enjoys it.  She has a passion for travel that’s contagious.  Please like or rate the post, and I definitely welcome feedback.  As a traveler I love telling the stories and pointing out places to see or things to do.  I’ve been to Copenhagen twice, most recently in January and the first time with my wife.  I loved it both times. I’m sure you’ll love it too.

Joel in Copenhagen