It was while watching a SCI FI Ancient Aliens show I first heard about the underground cities of Derinkuyu, Kaymakli and Ozkonak. These and the other 200+ Underground Cities are a huge mystery that may never come to full light. Everything we know is just from what has been found in excavating what remained. This could be remnants from those who were last there, as these caves could be much much older. There really are so many cave systems and underground tunnels and essentially full cities underground that it may never be fully excavated. These cities contained wineries, stables, churches, school, cellars, storage rooms. The largest of the underground city of the in the Derinkuyu district in Nevşehir Province, Turkey. It’s only been open to visitors since 1969 and less than half of what has been excavated is accessible to tourists. At peak this city could have supported 20,000 residents and was up to 85 Meters deep!!! According to the Turkish department of culture the cave is 8th to 7th century possibly built by the Phrygians either for religious purposes or refuge.
Now if you’re looking to visit this region, Goreme, Turkey is a great central location and really setup well for tourists where you can sleep in your own cave, but not part of any major tunnel system. Goreme has shuttles to and from the airport. Warning: If you are planning on not renting a car (which you shouldn’t need to do), you need to make sure you arrange ahead of time with one of the shuttle companies, the small airport in Kayceri has no ticket desk for shuttles and the taxi ride is pretty steep comparatively. I was denied entry into a shuttle bus even after offering to pay him his price. The driver won’t take money, it has to be pre-arranged. I ended up catching a ride with an older couple that was headed into the city. Really I got lucky, I didn’t want to pay the high price of the taxi, and there were no bus options that were convenient. It was going to be a long walk and an inconvenient trek to the bus station, and who knows how long I may have had to wait. WIth as many tourist shops and vehicles as there are in Goreme it was amazing to me how there was really NOTHING at the airport.
On the surface you really wouldn’t even know it was down there, save the entrance sign and a few air vents that look like wells.
Based on the size of the 500KG door that’s only able to be opened from the inside, I can definitely imagine it being used for refuge and for hiding from someone or something.
There are some spaces that are very wide open such is just outside the church which makes the shape of a cross, underground, or the very tight spaces that is speculated as being a doorway that forces the person to be penitent. They must go onto their knees to enter. The self inflicted punishment is they would go around and around through the small tunnel to learn humility, kind of like the hail Mary or doing rosary beads.
When inside unless you’re claustrophobic, you feel very safe. The walls seem very solid and there isn’t any crumbling rock. There are some areas where you need to bend over to avoid hitting your head, but the hall near the church has a lot of room, and supports really large gathering of people.
You can take a virtual tour of the caves at http://www.muze.gov.tr/derinkuyu
Look closely at these boards and you have one of the primary tools used to carve the stone with much sharper stones. The would drag the board across the softer stone and it would essentially carve away the stone. In this way they could remove the stone in large swaths. For smaller areas, they would use smaller tools.
Those who speculate that it was designed to be very temporary need to explain the graves in the area called the Morgue. Here the rooms in this section of the cave are designed to handle the dead… Is it possible these graves were temporary holding places for the dead until they could find peace long enough to bury their dead.
Yes, it was very dark 7-8 stories down. The little lights are wired up and brought in through wires attached to the wall.
Nevşehir Province has several other underground cities and Derinkuyu itself connects to Kaymakli via an 8 km tunnel. The deepest cave city is Derinkuyu and the widest is Kaymakli. You can’t travel the tunnel between them. Derinkuyu is about 30 minute drive from Goreme, which is the city where most of the hotel and tourist support is. Access to these cities is no longer open to local residents without going through the main entrance. They remain generally unoccupied. In excess of 200 underground cities containing a minimum of two levels have been discovered in the area between Kayseri and Nevsehir. Some 40 of those contain a minimum of three levels or more. The troglodyte (underground) cities at Kaymaklı and Derinkuyu are two of the best examples of habitable underground structures. Reaching Derinkuyu or Goreme and the underground cities and cave churches, one can purchase a domestic ticket on Turish Airlines to Keyseri or Nevsehir. There are overland bus routes as well from across the country with flying being the shortest and not a bad way to reach the city. Turkey is a big country so plan accordingly.
Why you need to visit Cappadocia the Underground Cities and Cave Churches
There are so many incredible things to see in Cappadocia that you could spend a weeks here and still discover new places. The main ‘must-see’ attractions are the open-air museums which are essentially groupings of caves, cathedrals and homes and the two best underground cities. At the same time it wouldn’t make sense to go this whole way and not see the incredible Rose Valley, the Ihlara valley which has many of its own small cave churches, but even just outside the Goreme Open Air museum is one of my favorite cave churches. What you’ll find when you arrive is there are many tourist companies that have organized the tours into the blue route, and red route, and so on, to group the various activities for those with limited time. As well, don’t forget to get up as high as you can to check out the valley, this may be in a hot air balloon or on a hike to the top of the canyons. One thing you must do is explore. There’s so much to see and not everything is behind closed doors. Even just hiking the valleys, you’ll be amazed to find abandoned caves.
- Goreme Open Air Museum: cave churches with frescoes
- Zelve Open Air Museum: an empty cave town with churches
- Kaymakli Underground City: the largest underground city
- Derinkuyu Underground City: the deepest underground city
- Ihlara Valley: the deepest gorge of Anatolia
- Uchisar: Roman rock-cut castle. You’ll see it driving back and forth. Very cool looking.
- Ortahisar: Roman rock-cut castle.
- Pasabag: mushroom-shaped fairy chimneys, monks valley
- Devrent: animal-shaped fairy chimneys, imagination valley
- Hacibektas: center of Bektasi sect of Islam
- Gulsehir: first settlements in Cappadocia
I shared some of my stories on the Open Air Musuem, the Ihlara Valley and Monestary in “Early Cave Churches of Cappadocia Turkey” and more on the “Underground Cities”
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